Figure 1. Breaking down an argument into the standard form can help you identify the premises and conclusion. Roughly speaking, a valid argument is one that firmly leads from true statements to other true statements, while an invalid argument is an argument that can lead you, for example, to a false statement of an argument that is true. Statements are different from the sentences they convey. “Smith loves Jones” expresses exactly the same phrase as “Jones is loved by Smith,” while the phrase “Today is my birthday” can be used to convey many different statements depending on who is saying it and on what day. But every statement is true or false. Sometimes, of course, we don`t know which of these truth values has a particular statement (“There is life on Jupiter`s third moon” is currently an example), but we can be sure that it has one or the other. Note that “premise” and “conclusion” are defined here only when they occur relative to each other in a particular argument. The same sentence can (and often appears) as the conclusion of an argument, but also as one of the premises of another. A number of words and phrases are often used in ordinary language to indicate the premises and conclusion of an argument, although their use is never absolutely necessary as context can make the direction of movement clear. What distinguishes an argument from a simple set of statements is the conclusion that should apply to each other.
Conclusion: The main allegation is in an argument that supports any premise. An argument is formally valid only if the rejection of the conclusion is incompatible with the assumption of all premises. Because deductive reasoning requires such a strong relationship between premises and conclusion, we will spend most of this investigation examining different models of deductive inference. It is therefore necessary to examine in detail the standard of accuracy of deductive arguments. To present and evaluate unworkable reasoning, it is necessary to combine logical rules (which govern the acceptance of a conclusion based on the acceptance of its premises) with rules of substantive conclusion that govern how a premise can support a particular conclusion (whether or not it is reasonable to draw some conclusion from a specific description of a State). Any of them could be the beginning of an argument, but they are incomplete arguments as in; An argument needs both a claim and a conclusion. A premise is a statement or piece of evidence that supports the conclusion, and a conclusion is the main idea (or the “so what?”) of the argument supported by the premises. Now let`s look at the above examples as premises, and we`ll add a conclusion to make an argument out of it. For example, an end argument is a logical argument that begins with a finite number of axioms and can be translated into a finite number of statements. Our main concern is to evaluate the reliability of conclusions, the thought patterns that lead to conclusions in a logical argument of premises. We will pay a lot of attention to what works and what doesn`t. It is important from the outset to distinguish between two types of conclusions, each with its own structure and standard of accuracy.
The main concern of logic is how the truth of some statements relates to the truth of another. Therefore, we will generally consider a group of related proposals. An argument is a set of two or more statements that are related to each other in such a way that all but one of them (the premises) should support the rest (the conclusion). The transition or passage from the premises to the conclusions, the logical link between them, is the conclusion on which the argument is based. Note that each argument meets this standard or does not. There is no middle ground. Some deductive arguments are perfect, and if their premises are indeed true, then it follows that their conclusions must also be true, no matter what may be the case. All other deductive arguments are not good at allYour conclusions may be wrong, even if their premises are true, and no amount of additional information can help them in the slightest.
A deductive argument is considered valid if the conclusion from premise to conclusion is perfect. Here are two equivalent ways to formulate this standard: Each diagram can be associated with a number of critical questions, namely criteria for dialectical evaluation of the relevance and acceptance of an argument. Appropriate critical questions are the standard methods for casting doubt on the argument. One way to test the accuracy of a premise is to determine whether the premise is based on a sample that is both representative and sufficiently large, and to ask yourself whether all relevant factors have been taken into account when analyzing the data that leads to generalization. Another way to assess a premise is to determine if its source is credible. Are the perpetrators identified? What is your background? Was the premise something you found on an undocumented website? Did you find it in a popular or scientific publication? To what extent were the studies or statistics reported in the source complete, up-to-date and relevant? Consider all of these things when evaluating an argument. Don`t worry if this procedure seems rather shy and uncertain at first. We`ll look at the structural characteristics of logical arguments in much more detail as we move forward, and you`ll soon find it easy to spot examples of the particular patterns we encounter most often. At present, it is sufficient to recognize the difference between an argument and a simple set of statements and to identify the intended conclusion of each argument.
It should already be possible to distinguish the arguments of these two types with some precision. Remember that deductive arguments claim to guarantee their conclusions, while inductive arguments only recommend theirs. Or ask yourself if the introduction of additional information that does not change or deny any of the premises could make the conclusion more or less likely; If so, the reasoning model is inductive. While arguments try to show that something was, is, will be or should be the case, explanations try to show why or how something is or will be. When Fred and Joe raise the question of whether Fred`s cat has fleas or not, Joe may say, “Fred, your cat has fleas. Look, the cat is scratching right now. Joe argued that the cat has fleas. However, when Joe asks Fred, “Why is your cat scratching?” the explanation: “. because it has fleas. ” provides an understanding. Other types of arguments may have different or additional standards of validity or justification. For example, the philosopher Charles Taylor said that so-called transcendental arguments consist of a “chain of indispensable claims” that attempt to show why something is necessarily true, based on its connection to our experience, while Nikolas Kompridis suggested that there are two types of “fallible” arguments: one based on claims of truth, and the other based on timed disclosure of possibilities.
(Cosmopolitan revelation).  Kompridis said that the French philosopher Michel Foucault was a prominent defender of the latter form of philosophical argumentation.  An argument is a statement that contains both a conclusion and a supporting premise. It is a statement of fact or opinion based on evidence or premises. Note that not all statements are arguments, and some statements may contain multiple arguments. Logic is the study of the forms of argumentation in arguments and the development of norms and criteria for the evaluation of arguments.  Deductive arguments can be valid or valid: in a valid argument, the premises require the conclusion, even if one or more of the premises are false and the conclusion is false; In a valid argument, true premises require a true conclusion. Inductive arguments, on the other hand, can have different degrees of logical force: the stronger or more conclusive the argument, the greater the probability that the conclusion is true, the lower the argument, the lower the probability.
 Standards for evaluating non-deductive arguments may be based on criteria other than truth – for example, the persuasion of so-called “claims of indispensibility” in transcendent arguments, the quality of retroduction hypotheses, or even the disclosure of new possibilities for thinking and acting.  Our basic unit of what can be claimed or denied is the statement (or statement) usually expressed by a declarative sentence. Logicians of previous centuries often identified theses with mental actions to confirm them, often called judgments, but we can dodge some interesting but thorny philosophical questions by avoiding this locution. Premises: Claims that support the conclusion of an argument The form of the argument can be shown by the use of symbols. For each form of argument, there is a corresponding form of instruction called a corresponding condition, and an argument form is valid precisely when its corresponding condition is a logical truth. A logically true instruction form is also called a valid instruction form. A form of statement is a logical truth if it is true under all interpretations. A testimony form can be shown as a logical truth either (a) showing that it is a tautology, or (b) by a evidentiary procedure. In Lesson 5, students are asked to create a logical argument to support their grand goal. .